Our History of Art in Rome course is an opportunity to get to know the city of Rome throughout the course of its historical and artistic evolution. We start with the classical era, exploring it through the texts of ancient writers and the direct experience of monuments which have survived the passage of centuries. We then move onto Christianity, which had its early development in this city, via the works of sacred art found in local churches and convents. We will then acquire an appreciation for the whimsical Baroque and Rococo masterpieces that decorate the piazzas and streets.
The building was destroyed Baroque and rococo art periods the Second World War, but has been reconstructed. Johann Michael Fischer was the architect of Ottobeuren Abbey —the most celebrated Bavarian rococo landmark.
The church features, like much of the rococo architecture in Germany, a remarkable contrast between the regularity of the facade and the overabundance of decoration in the interior.
Britain[ edit ] In Great Britain, rococo was called the "French taste" and had less influence on design and the decorative arts than in continental Europe.
William Hogarth helped develop a theoretical foundation for Rococo beauty. Though not mentioning rococo by name, he argued in his Analysis of Beauty that the undulating lines and S-curves prominent in Rococo were the basis for grace and beauty in art or nature unlike the straight line or the circle in Classicism.
Before entering the Rococo, British furniture for a time followed the neoclassical Palladian model under designer William Kentwho designed for Lord Burlington and other important patrons of the arts. Kent travelled to Italy with Lord Burlington between andand brought back many models and ideas from Palladio.
The Rococo began to make an appearance in England between and Unlike French designers, Chippendale did not employ marquetry or inlays in his furniture. Another important figure in British furniture was Thomas Johnsonwho invery late in the period, published a catalog of Roroco furniture designs.
These include furnishings based on rather fantastic Chinese and Indian motifs, including a canopy bed crowned by a Chinese pagoda now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Design for a State Bed by Thomas Chippendale —54 Proposed Chinese sofa by Thomas Chippendale —54 Design for Commode and lamp stands by Thomas Chippendale —54 Side chair by Thomas Chippendale —60 Design for candlesticks in the "Chinese Taste" by Thomas Johnson Chippendale chairMetropolitan Museum Brazier by silversmith Charles Friedrich Kander, Metropolitan Museum Decline and end[ edit ] The art of Boucher and other painters of the period, with its emphasis on decorative mythology and gallantry, soon inspired a reaction, and a demand for more "noble" themes.
While the rococo continued in Germany and Austria, the French Academy in Rome began to teach the classic style. This was confirmed by the nomination of Le Troy as director of the Academy inand then in by Charles-Joseph Natoire.
Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV contributed to the decline of the rococo style. He was accompanied by several artists, including the engraver Nicolas Cochin and the architect Soufflot.
They returned to Paris with a passion for classical art. He turned official French architecture toward the neoclassical. Cochin became an important art critic; he denounced the petit style of Boucher, and called for a grand style with a new emphasis on antiquity and nobility in the academies of painting and architecture.
Blondel decried the "ridiculous jumble of shells, dragons, reeds, palm-trees and plants" in contemporary interiors.
Rococo remained popular in the provinces and in Italy, until the second phase of neoclassicism, " Empire style ", arrived with Napoleonic governments and swept Rococo away. Furniture and Decoration[ edit ] The ornamental style called rocaille emerged in France between andmostly during the regency and reign of Louis XV ; the style was also called Louis Quinze.
Its principal characteristics were picturesque detail, curves and counter-curves, asymmetry, and a theatrical exuberance. On the walls of new Paris salons, the twisting and winding designs, usually made of gilded or painted stucco, wound around the doorways and mirrors like vines.
His work is well known today because of the enormous number of engravings made of his work which popularized the style throughout Europe. He designed works for the royal families of Poland and Portugal.
Italy was another place where the Rococo flourished, both in its early and later phases. Craftsmen in Rome, Milan and Venice all produced lavishly decorated furniture and decorative items.
The most extravagant rocaille forms were found in the consoles, tables designed to stand against walls. The Commodes, or chests, which had first appeared under Louis XIV, were richly decorated with rocaille ornament made of gilded bronze. They were made by master craftsmen including Jean-Pierre Latz and also featured marquetry of different-colored woods, sometimes placed in checkerboard cubic patterns, made with light and dark woods.
The period also saw the arrival of Chinoiserieoften in the form of lacquered and gilded commodes, called falcon de Chine of Vernis Martin, after the ebenist who introduced the technique to France.
Ormoluor gilded bronze, was used by master craftsmen including Jean-Pierre Latz. Latz made a particularly ornate clock mounted atop a cartonnier for Frederick the Great for his palace in Potsdam. Pieces of imported Chinese porcelain were often mounted in gilded bronze rococo settings for display on tables or consoles in salons.
Other craftsmen imitated the Japanese art of lacquered furniture, and produced commodes with motifs of Japanese paintings. The most successful exponent of British Rococo was probably Thomas Johnsona gifted carver and furniture designer working in London in the midth century.Italian Renaissance Sculpture (c) The Italian Renaissance was inspired by the "rediscovery" of, and reverence for, the arts of Classical Antiquity, especially in the field of architecture and sculpture.
Renaissance art was also coloured by a strong belief in Humanism and the nobility of Man. It began in Florence, being inspired by individuals such as the architect Filippo.
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The Baroque (US: / b ə ˈ r oʊ k / or UK: / b ə ˈ r ɒ k /) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the midth century.
It followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Rococo (in the past often referred to as "late Baroque") and Neoclassical styles.
It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a.
Similar characteristics and overlapping time periods, however, are perhaps why Baroque art and Rococo art are often confused. If the distinction between Rococo vs. Baroque period art is a bit fuzzy for you, fear not.
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