A catalytic converter is a device used to convert toxic vehicle emissions to less harmful substances by way of catalyzed, or accelerated, chemical reactions. Most present-day vehicles that run on gasoline, including automobiles, trucks, buses, trains, motorcycles, and planes, have exhaust systems employing a catalytic converter.
Petroleum Technology History Part 4 - Environment Initially attractive because it was cheap and relatively abundant, natural gas also held the advantage of being cleaner burning and far less damaging to the environment, factors that became increasingly important with the passage of the Clean Air Act in the s.
Indeed, natural gas has replaced crude oil as the most important source of petrochemical feedstocks. Petrochemical and automotive engineers had already responded to environmental concerns in a variety of ways. Haensel's process, which was eventually recognized as one of the most significant chemical engineering technologies of the past 50 years, made the addition of lead to gasoline no longer necessary.
Today, more than 85 percent of the gasoline produced worldwide is derived from platforming.
Also well ahead of the environmental curve was Eugene Houdry, who had developed catalytic cracking; in he invented the catalytic converter, a device that removed some of the most harmful pollutants from automobile exhaust and that ultimately became standard equipment on every car in the United States.
Other engineers also developed methods for removing more impurities, such as sulfur, during refining, making the process itself a cleaner affair. For its part, natural gas was readily adopted as an alternative to home heating oil and has also been used in some cities as the fuel for fleets of buses and taxicabs, reducing urban pollution.
Environmental concerns have also affected the other side of the petrochemical business, leading to sophisticated processes for recycling existing plastic products. Somewhere around the middle of the 20th century, petroleum replaced coal as the dominant fuel in the United States, and petroleum processing technologies allowed petrochemicals to replace environmentally harmful coal tar chemistry.
The next half-century saw this dominance continue and even take on new forms, as plastics and synthetic fibers entered the consumer marketplace.
Despite increasingly complex challenges, new generations of researchers and engineers have continued to keep the black gold bonanza in full swing.A catalytic converter (colloquially, "cat" or "catcon") is a device used to decrease the toxicity of emissions from an internal combustion engine. Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) is a private research university in Worcester, Massachusetts, focusing on the instruction and research of technical arts and applied sciences..
Founded in in Worcester, WPI was one of the United States' first engineering and technology universities and now has 14 academic departments with over 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science.
This entry was posted on Monday, March 19th, at am and is filed under Engine, Technical monstermanfilm.com can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.
Platinum Group Metal Recovery from Spent Catalytic Converters. The catalyst component of a catalytic converter is usually platinum (Pt), along with palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh). All three of these platinum group metals, or PGMs, are extremely rare but have a broad range of . Catalytic Converters Essay Sample Catalytic converters are used in cars to reduce pollution and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide.
Here are the reactions that happen inside a catalytic converter: 2NOx(g) → xO2(g) + N2(g) – this is the reduction of nitrogen oxides.
2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g) – this is the changing of carbon monoxide to. - Introduction: General Description A catalytic converter is an exhaust component used in modern automobiles to decrease the emission of toxic gasses. The average catalytic converter is capable of converting around 98% of these harmful emissions into relatively benign byproducts (UC Davis).
Through this essay I will go through some examples.