Cold storage thesis

Functionality[ edit ] Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would merely be able to perform fixed operations and immediately output the result. It would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior.

Cold storage thesis

Technical details[ edit ] Liquid nitrogen or compressed air cans can be improvised to cool memory modules, and thereby slow down the degradation of volatile memory DIMM memory modules gradually lose data over time as they lose power, but do not immediately, lose all data when power is lost.

Furthermore, as the bits disappear in memory over time, they can be reconstructed, as they fade away in a predictable manner. The ability to execute the cold boot attack successfully varies considerably across different systems, types of memory, memory manufacturers and motherboard properties, and may be more difficult to carry out than software-based methods or a DMA attack.

A similar kind of attack can also be used to extract data from memory, such as a DMA attack that allows the physical memory to be accessed Cold storage thesis a high-speed expansion port such as FireWire. Using the high-speed expansion port can short outor physically damage hardware in certain cases.

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For example, a cold boot attack is used in situations where a system is secured and it is not possible to access the computer. A cold boot attack provides access to the memory, which can provide information about the state of the system at the time such as what programs are running. Cold boot attacks when used in conjunction with key finding attacks have been demonstrated to be an effective means of circumventing full disk encryption schemes of various vendors and operating systemseven where a Trusted Platform Module TPM secure cryptoprocessor is used.

When the operating system boots, BitLocker retrieves the key from the TPM, without any user interaction. Consequently, an attacker can simply power on the machine, wait for the operating system to begin booting and then execute a cold boot attack against the machine to retrieve the key.

Due to this, two-factor authenticationsuch as a pre-boot PIN or a removable USB device containing a startup key together with a TPM should be used to work around this vulnerability in the default Bitlocker implementation.

Mitigation[ edit ] Since a memory dump can be easily performed by executing a cold boot attack, storage of sensitive data in RAM, like encryption keys for full disk encryption is unsafe.

The Cold Thermogenesis Protocol

Several solutions have been proposed for storing encryption keys in areas, other than random access memory. While these solutions may reduce the chance of breaking full disk encryption, they provide no protection of other sensitive data stored in memory.

Register-based key storage[ edit ] One solution for keeping encryption keys out of memory is register-based key storage. Keys stored at this level cannot easily be read from userspace [ citation needed ] and are lost when the computer restarts for any reason.

TRESOR and Loop-Amnesia both must use on-the-fly round key generation due to the limited space available for storing cryptographic tokens in this manner. For security, both disable interrupts to prevent key information from leaking to memory from the CPU registers while encryption or decryption is being performed, and both block access to the debug or profile registers.

There are two potential areas in modern x86 processors for storing keys: A proof of concept distribution called paranoix based on the SSE register method has been developed.

Cache-based key storage[ edit ] "frozen cache" sometimes known as "cache as RAM"[17] may be used to securely store encryption keys.

It works by disabling a CPU's CPU's L1 cache and uses it for key storage, however, this may significantly degrade overall system performance to the point of being too slow for most purposes.

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It employs hardware transactional memory HTM which was originally proposed as a speculative memory access mechanism to boost the performance of multi-threaded applications.

The strong atomicity guarantee provided by HTM, is utilized to defeat illegal concurrent accesses to the memory space that contains sensitive data. Because a plain-text RSA private key only appears as modified data in an HTM transaction, any read operation to these data will abort the transaction - the transaction will roll-back to its initial state.

Note that, the RSA private key is encrypted in initial state, and it is a result of write operations or AES decryption. So cold-boot attacks are prevented. Mimosa defeats against attacks that attempt to read sensitive data from memory including cold-boot attacks, DMA attacks, and other software attacksand it only introduces a small performance overhead.

Dismounting encrypted disks[ edit ] Best practice recommends dismounting any encrypted, non-system disks when not in use, since most disk encryption software is designed to securely erase keys cached in memory after use. To minimize access to encrypted information on the operating system hard disk, the machine should be completely shut down when not in use to reduce the likelihood of a successful cold boot attack.

Configuring an operating system to shut down or hibernate when unused, instead of using sleep mode, can help mitigate the risk of a successful cold boot attack.

Smartphones[ edit ] The cold boot attack can be adapted and carried out in a similar manner on Android smartphones. Typically, the smartphone is connected to an attacker's machine using a USB port.

Typically, android smartphones securely erases encryption keys from random access memory when the phone is locked. Ineffective countermeasures[ edit ] Memory scrambling may be used to minimize undesirable parasitic effects of semiconductors as a feature of modern Intel Core processors.

Sleep mode provides no additional protection against a cold boot attack because data typically still resides in memory while in this state. As such, full disk encryption products are still vulnerable to attack because the keys reside in memory and do not need to be re-entered once the machine resumes from a low power state.

Although limiting the boot device options in the BIOS may make it slightly less easy to boot another operating system, firmware in modern chipsets tends to allow the user to override the boot device during POST by pressing a specified hot key.Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital is a core function and fundamental component of computers.: 15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations.

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Cold boot attack - Wikipedia

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Cold storage thesis

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The Cold Thermogenesis Protocol