While this website will remain online, it is no longer maintained. History - Dr. Today, our story continues with a new chapter - a chapter that coincides with the "closure" of the American frontier which we have discussed over the past two days - and focuses on the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and immigration that occurred at the end of the 19th Century. This is an era that often is not taught in the schools but is essential to an understanding of contemporary American history - and era known as the Gilded Age.
Coal Strike of As fierce battles were waged between labor unions and business owners during the rise of organized labor in the 19th century, strikes were often the only effective means for unions to gain significant concessions from business owners.
Strikes were usually peaceful, but sometimes led to violence and widespread property destruction. Some strikes were so significant that they changed the course of the entire labor movement. Following are five such strikes: Great Railroad Strike of Four years into an economic recession sparked by the Panic ofthe U.
To compensate, railroads across the country in the early summer of began cutting salaries and wages, slashing work hours and increasing workloads. Workers responded by spontaneously seizing control of rail yard switches and blocking the movement of freight trains trying to pass through.
Louis, Missouri; and San Francisco. Governors in Maryland, Pennsylvania and West Virginia called out state militias to quell the unrest.
When many groups of militiamen refused to use force against the strikers out of sympathy for their cause, President Rutherford B.
Hayes R, dispatched federal troops to replace them. Some of the worst fighting occurred in Pittsburgh, where troops sent from Philadelphia shot into crowds and killed dozens of protesters, including women and children.
An angry mob eventually cornered the troops in a railroad complex, where it set engines, buildings and equipment ablaze. By the time most strike activity subsided in late July, more than civilians were dead nationwide.
The wage reductions remained in place and business owners clamped down on unions around the country. The federal government created the National Guard to put down future labor disturbances. Nevertheless, union membership flourished in the following years, breathing life into a national labor movement that for decades had been sporadic and widely dispersed.
Haymarket Square Riot A broad coalition of labor organizations launched a nationwide campaign in early demanding an eight-hour workday, which was a long-standing issue for labor groups it was common for laborers to work 12 hours a day.
On May 1, the coalition began a general strike throughout the U. Police fired into the crowd, killing two workers. The demonstration began peacefully until an unknown individual hurled a bomb into a group of policemen, killing seven and wounding 60 others. Police then opened fire on the crowd, injuring dozens.
In the aftermath of the killings, police rounded up hundreds of anarchists and political radicals, putting several of their publications out of business. The crackdown culminated in the trial of eight Chicago anarchists, including nationally known leaders August Spies and Albert Parsons.
The eight were charged with the murder of one of the police officers on the grounds that they had incited the bombing through inflammatory public speech. Despite the lack of any direct evidence linking them to the bombing, seven were sentenced to death and one to imprisonment.
After a series of unsuccessful appeals, one defendant committed suicide in jail, while Spies, Parsons and two others were hanged in By that time, however, the public backlash against the labor movement had all but destroyed the Knights of Labor. Despite no connection having been made between organized labor and the bombing at Haymarket Square, organized labor was nevertheless were stigmatized as being no less radical than the anarchists.
To dramatically increase efficiency, Carnegie outfitted the plant with open-hearth furnaces and electricity, which in turn greatly reduced the need for skilled labor. Most of all, he wanted to eliminate the presence of the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers, one of the strongest craft unions in the country at that time.
When negotiations broke down, Frick shut down the mill and locked out thousands of steel workers. On July 6, hundreds of workers and townspeople confronted the private guards from the Pinkerton National Detective Agency hired to protect the mill, demanding their jobs back.
A gun battle ensued, leaving seven workers and three guards dead. The National Guard was soon dispatched to protect the plant, and, by November, thousands of African American and Eastern European strikebreakers had been brought in to work the mills.
The incident was a disaster for the Homestead workers, and the labor movement as a whole. Perhaps the greatest consequence was the nationwide shift in the industry from an eight-hour workday to a hour workday, six days a week, with a hour shift every two weeks.
The steel industry was not unionized until almost 50 years after the Homestead strike. Pullman Strike The U.James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, – December 1, ) was an American novelist and social monstermanfilm.com essays, as collected in Notes of a Native Son (), explore intricacies of racial, sexual, and class distinctions in Western societies, most notably in midth-century America.
Some of Baldwin's essays are book-length, including The Fire Next Time (), No Name in the Street ( The Haymarket Affair. 3, gather at Chicago’s Haymarket Square, protest police brutality.
The Pullman Company Strike. Pullman lays off 3,, cuts wages but not rents; workers strike. Westward Expansion and Industrialization Last modified by.
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Offers news, comment and features about the British arts scene with sections on comparison of the haymarket affair and the pullman strike books, films, music, theatre, art and architecture.
American Party of Labor; Black Riders Liberation Party; Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism (CDCS) Communist Party USA; Democratic Socialists of America.