The specific intent of the program is to produce scholars with three characteristics:
Rettig Alternative schedules may not add hours to the school day, but they can vastly improve the quality of the time students spend at school. Scheduling is a valuable but untapped resource for school improvement.
Through our work in schools across the country, we have seen again and again how a well-crafted schedule can result in more effective use of time, space, and resources human as well as material ; improve instructional climate; help solve problems related to the delivery of instruction; and assist in establishing desired programs and instructional practices.
We believe that Deming was right when he said that it is more often the structure of an organization than the inadequacies of the people who work within it that causes problems Bonstingl Three Issues All Schools Face Although scheduling varies from elementary school through high school, three areas of concern span all levels.
Providing Quality Time Fragmented instructional time is an issue at all levels. In elementary school, a variety of practices contribute to this problem.
For example, haphazardly scheduled pullout programs for ESL or special education, for example disrupt classroom instruction; and because the schedules of specialists for music and art, for example are created for periods of varying length, core teachers must plan instruction around the remaining chopped-up time.
In addition, when special programs classes meet just once a week for a short period, students receive piecemeal instruction. At the middle and high school levels, fragmentation occurs in a different way.
Students traveling through a six- seven- or eight-period day encounter the same number of pieces of unconnected curriculum each day, with little opportunity for in-depth study. In middle schools, this problem may have been exacerbated by exploratory programs, which in many schools have evolved from risk-free explorations to full academic courses with tests, grades, and homework.
Is having so many teachers per day and per year consistent with what we know about middle school students? At the elementary level, discipline problems can result from the way small-group reading and math instruction is scheduled. Many teachers continue to divide their classes into reading, language arts, and math groups, which meet separately with the teacher while other students complete worksheets or work in learning centers.
All too often, teachers must interrupt small-group instruction to address discipline problems that arise in the back of the room. In middle and high schools, traditional schedules create at least four situations that may contribute to the number of discipline problems.
Many disciplinary referrals result from scheduled transitions, when large numbers of students spill into hallways, lunchrooms, and commons areas, or congregate in locker rooms and bathrooms.
If students are not sent to the office directly, the problems often carry over into the classroom, where teachers must deal with them before beginning instruction. The assembly-line, traditional period schedule contributes to the depersonalizing nature of high schools.
When teachers are responsible for — students daily, and students must answer to six, seven, or eight teachers a day, it is nearly impossible to develop close relationships, which may help reduce discipline problems.
Short instructional periods may also contribute to a negative classroom climate. When students who misbehave do not respond to a quick correction, many teachers send them to the office. With only to minute class periods, these teachers view any time taken away from classwork as unacceptable.
The middle school schedule, in particular, often makes teaming efforts difficult. Students in seven-period schools often are enrolled in three non-core classes, while the four-teacher teams—one teacher each from English, math, science, and social studies—are assigned five classes daily.
Providing Varying Learning Time Perhaps the most critical and unresolved time allocation issue that schools face is the indisputable fact that some students need more time to learn than others.
High schools, and to a lesser extent middle schools, experience this problem, especially in late January. After receiving their first-semester grades, some students conclude that they will not pass the subject regardless of their performance during the second semester.
Believing they have nothing to gain by doing the work, some of these students act out and skip classes.DE-WORMING AND VACCINATION SCHEDULING. DE-WORMING AND VACCINATION SCHEDULING. Goats as a species are very susceptible to internal parasites, especially stomach worms.
The merits of block scheduling are a subject of great debate. Is it a flexible scheduling alternative that benefits students -- or is it a fad that's sure to pass? At Fujitsu we create strong partnerships with our customers, enabling us to work together to find innovative solutions to business challenges.
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