Doctors use a cesarean delivery when they think it is safer than vaginal delivery for the woman, the baby, or both, as in the following situations: Doctors were concerned that the scar from the incision in the uterus might open uterine rupture during labor.
Economic Aspects of Immigration Economists have two interests in immigration: It should be stressed that labor markets are not static; they are always moving toward a new equilibrium.
Because there are both short-run effects and second-order effects, depending on the speed of adjustment in the market, cross-sectional data can fail to detect changes. The study of labor market substitution and complementary changes requires longitudinal data, which may tell stories different from those of the cross-sectional data.
There are two important areas for research on immigrants and the labor force. First, more work is required on the bounds and nature of labor markets. Labor markets have changed considerably in recent decades, presenting a changing context for recent immigrants. Metropolitan labor markets are now a prominent feature for immigrants, yet we lack a clear idea of the edges of urban labor markets and how metropolitan labor markets work.
Conceptual work is also needed on the role of employers in metropolitan labor markets, how they recruit workers from within and outside urban areas, and how they affect labor force participation.
Second, there are issues involving ethnic groups in the study of labor markets. The National Academies Press. Also, studies frequently use the group white non-Hispanic as a reference for empirical comparisons.
Important questions for research are: What groups should be used and what is the proper reference group for empirical research on immigrants? If labor markets are structurally divided, as is often argued, what ethnic or country-of-origin aggregation is meaningful for comparisons? Wage Trends 1 Although discussions of the economic assimilation of immigrants encompass several alternative perspectives, most agree on the beginning fact: The first explanation for this pattern is that it reflects labor market assimilation this is the view associated with Chiswick, According to this view, earnings of the typical immigrant rise quickly after arrival and eventually equal or even overtake the wages of natives.
A critical concept for this first perspective is the idea of location-specific capital. Immediately after immigration, immigrants suffer the disadvantage of knowing far less than natives about the cultural, institutional, and economic characteristics of the U.
In addition, their skills may not be readily adaptable to the new market. Consequently, their initial wages will be below those of otherwise equally qualified native-born residents. As the immigrants become better acquainted with the U. Empirical research with cross-sectional data suggests that the wage gap between immigrants and natives is most pronounced for immigrants whose culture and language are most dissimilar to the United States.
The wage gap between immigrants and natives is smaller for immigrants from Canada and the United Kingdom, for example, for whom the initial differences are smaller.
A second perspective is that economic assimilation is largely a mirage. Instead, it is argued, the declining cohort quality of immigrants is the primary reason for the observed cross-sectional decline in wages for the more recent arrivals this view is associated with Borjas, Labor rights and women’s rights are inherently entwined.
With the international attention focused on the garment industry in South Asia right now, an industry comrpised primarily of female workers, it is an important place to begin promoting women's rights at .
Complications may happen during childbirth including preterm labor, problems with the umbilical cord or position of the baby, monstermanfilm.com (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health) Find health information in languages other than English on Childbirth Problems.
cipation of women in the labor force: a) Need for more workers - demand b) Increased educational opportunities c) Decrease in family size d) Increase in number of women dependent on their own earnings e) Change in length of work-life.
WORKING WOMEN: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS. Oct 09, · Complications of pregnancy are health problems that occur during pregnancy.
They can involve the mother's health, the baby's health, or both. Some women have health problems before they become pregnant that could lead to complications. Most healthy pregnant women with no risk factors for problems during labor or delivery have their babies vaginally.
Still, the cesarean birth rate in the United States has risen greatly in recent decades. Jan 06, · In some women, the placenta separates from the inner uterine wall.
This separation, or abruption, can be mild, moderate, or severe. If severe, the fetus cannot get the oxygen and nutrients needed to survive.