Received Jun 29; Accepted Jul 5. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Sex and gender are defined differently in anthropology, the former as grounded in perceived biological differences and the latter as the cultural constructions observed, performed, and understood in any given society, often based on those perceived biological differences. Throughout the 20th century and the rise of sociocultural anthropology, the meaning and significance of gender to the discipline has shifted.
In early ethnographic studies, gender was often synonymous with kinship or family, and a monograph might include just a single chapter on women or family issues. Despite early female pioneers in the field, it was not until the s and s and the real rise of feminist anthropology that gender as a distinct area of theoretical and methodological interest took hold within the discipline.
Women were no longer seen as a category of culture and society outside of the realm of the everyday. Gradually the most recent works in gender and anthropology came to encompass a wide range of perspectives that challenge Western or monolithic assumptions about women and the experience of gender.
For example, non-Western writing on gender illustrates how varied the experience of feminism can be in contemporary contexts where religious beliefs, development experiences, and the very role of language can influence understandings of gender.
The study of women, men, and the intersections of gender across cultures has become a key aspect of any holistic study or methodological approach in anthropology today.
Early Ethnography Many early monographs in anthropology were grounded in perspectives determined by the interests of largely male ethnographers. Studies of women or the concept of gender were generally included in chapters or notes on family and kinship.
With the work of pioneers such as Ruth Benedict Benedict and Margaret Mead Mead aMead bthe study of gender in anthropology took a more central place. Particularly for Benedict, ethnographic studies of gender were grounded in culture and personality studies.
For Mead, a student of Benedict, research dealt much more with biological versus cultural conditioning of individuals, particularly in the areas of male and female temperament and cultural constructions of male and female traits.
Her work was one of the first to critique a universal assumption of biologically determined male or female traits or roles. As anthropology continued to broaden its scope and become a more comparative ethnological enterprise, studies grew that suggested that women and gender were topics not only worthy of study but also valuable for the new perspectives they yielded on the ubiquitous androcentric bias in the discipline and throughout early ethnography.
Strathern and Weiner challenged the idea that only goods produced by men were imbued with cultural significance. Universal patriarchy and assumptions about women as gatherers and innate nurturers throughout history emerged in Sacks and Zihlman These studies are useful as they provided the foundation of later work in gender studies that more closely examined the ethnographic evidence, exploring and then returning to the question of whether female subordination was universal or largely a product of male observer bias and privilege.
Challenges to early ethnography and the assumption that all women experienced gender similarly did emerge and continue to with the publication of Mohanty, et al. Originally published in Coming of age in Samoa: A psychological study of primitive youth for Western civilisation.
It has been a highly debated text but remains a central point of discussion in the emergence of the study of gender as social construction. Sex and temperament in three primitive societies. Sets the stage for her later work Male and Female: Penguin,a comparative study of these cultural differences in the United States and cross-culturally.
Third World women and the politics of feminism. The past and future of sexual equality. With a focus on modes of production and power difference, it offers more complex ways of understanding the myriad roles that women play in societies across cultures and history.
The gender of the gift: Problems with women and problems with society in Melanesia.
Women of value, men of renown: New perspectives in Trobriand exchange. The role of women in early hominid evolution. In Gender and anthropology:Historians disagree about the cause and significance of the major decline in the proportion of female defendants tried at the Old Bailey between the early eighteenth and early twentieth centuries.
There are four principal ways of analysing gender in the Proceedings. Using the statistics search page, it is possible to count types of crime.
Gender analysis aims to achieve equity, rather than equality. Gender equality is based on the premise that women and men should be treated in the same way. This fails to recognise that equal treatment will not produce equitable results, because women and men have different life experiences.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions.
This relationship becomes clearer in more "advanced" societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and. Throughout the 20th century and the rise of sociocultural anthropology, the meaning and significance of gender to the discipline has shifted.
In early ethnographic studies, gender was often synonymous with kinship or family, and a monograph might include just a single chapter on women or family issues. Define gender.
gender synonyms, gender pronunciation, gender translation, English dictionary definition of gender. In many other languages, especially the Romance languages, a large number of nouns are coded as being either feminine or masculine.
Aug 11, · Significance of gender in the attitude towards doctor-patient communication in medical students and physicians Henriette Löffler-Stastka, 1 Tamara Seitz, 2 Sabrina Billeth, 3 Barbara Pastner, 1 Ingrid Preusche, 4 and Charles Seidman 5.